GARDENING IN THE 18TH CENTURY

It’s mid-June and the spring planting rush is over. Thank heavens for all of the resources we have at our fingertips—from nurseries, seed catalogs, the library, and the internet to our own Master Gardeners’ private cache and network.

Such a plethora begs the question of how people got their gardening information before the modern advantages we all enjoy.

Plants and information moved much more slowly but I think you might be surprised at the variety available to people living in a four-mile-an-hour world in which most people seldom left their counties. Here are three examples.

William Faris, a silversmith, clockmaker and avid gardener, lived in Annapolis, MD across from the state capitol from 1728-1804. Because of his prime location, he had contact with everyone from local slaves to the governor and he discussed gardening and traded seeds with anyone he could. He was, in fact, the hub of a very democratic gardening network. In addition, because Annapolis was an international port, Faris had early information of which ships arrived from where and what plants, seeds and people they carried. He had access to seeds and plants from around the world. Luckily for us, Faris kept a careful diary of his gardening, including sketches of his garden layout and the plants he and his slave cultivated. You can read more about Faris in Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805 (Baltimore, 1998) by Barbara Wells Sarudy.
Also, read her excellent blog about all things gardening in early America at this link:
https://americangardenhistory.blogspot.com.

Charles Carroll, Barrister, lived in Annapolis at the same time as William Faris and surely knew him. As a young man, Carroll decided to build a country house on the Patapsco River, in what is now Baltimore, on land he owned and on which was an
iron mine. A wealthy bachelor, Carroll planned a showpiece plantation, Mount Clare, that included an extensive orchard, a kitchen garden and a greenhouse (in which he and his wife later grew pineapples.) If he got seeds from William Faris, he did not make note of it. Rather, many of the varieties of fruit trees and vegetables he grew at Mt. Clare came directly from England. It was a slow process but Carroll wanted to do everything according to the latest standards of the time. The process began when Carroll shipped iron from his mine to London. He sent with the captain a very long shopping list of all the fruit trees, vegetable seeds and latest gardening manual he wanted the captain to bring with him on his return to Maryland. Dozens of varieties were available to him. Three months later when the captain arrived in London, he handed the list over to Carroll’s agent in London who did the shopping and delivered the plants, seeds and book to the ship. That may have taken several months. It was at least a three-month journey back to Mt. Clare and the condition of the plants depended completely on the diligence of the captain in seeing that they were watered and protected from the sea weather. Many of the plants must have survived the trip because the grounds of Mount Clare were well-known once they were established. For pictures of Mount Clare, see 
http://www.mountclare.org/.


John Bartram (1699-1777), a Philadelphia Quaker and botanist, traveled up and down the eastern colonies collecting native American plant species in the early part of the eighteenth century. He took them back to Philadelphia and established a plant nursery. In addition, he began to collect seeds, plants and knowledge from correspondents, many of whom were in England. Bartram’s Garden became the first plant nursery in the colonies and had customers from the colonies as well as England. In 1765, King George III named Bartram his “Royal Botanist”. Bartram’s son, William, also a naturalist and plant explorer, ran the family nursery after his father’s passing. After 1810, John Bartram’s granddaughter, Ann Bartram Carr and her husband, Robert, took over and expanded the gardens. At one point, they offered 1400 native species and over 1000
exotic plants to their customers. The gardens closed for business in 1850. Luckily for us, though, the gardens were preserved, first privately and now as a public historic site. You can learn more about Bartram’s Gardens at
https://bartramsgarden.org/about/history/horticulture/.

To my knowledge, no one has made a comparison of the species and varieties available to early Americans and those available to us today. I suspect that they would find that while we enjoy a wide number of genera native to many parts of the globe we have
lost what people in the past had—a smaller number of genera and a larger number of species and varieties. It gives one pause.


Submitted by Trudy Eden

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The Zen of Gardening by David Wann

I marvel at the lush gardens I see on gardening shows and admit to a bit of
“green” envy. Unfortunately, those shows and gardening books for the humid
eastern U.S. do not help me much here in Montana. Instead I seek out advice
from gardeners who create successful gardens in our challenging conditions out
west.

David Wann is one such gardener. David began gardening at 7000 feet outside
Denver in the early 1980s. He has faced the same drought, wind, heat, cold, hail,
poor soils and short growing seasons that we cope with here in Montana. He
has distilled decades of experimental gardening and many lessons from masterful
gardeners that he has interviewed and worked with into this book.

Mr. Wann covers a very wide range of topics from mulching, choosing natives,
starting seeds, growing garlic, producing food in the winter to planting trees,
shrubs and perennial flowers. The novice and the seasoned gardener alike will
find great information here. As I read the book, I started a list of useful tips that
I plan to implement in my garden, such as mulching potato plants with pine needles, feeding my strawberries with compost and bone meal, using different methods of seed-starting to meet the varying needs of seeds, growing hairy vetch as a cover crop and companion plant to tomatoes, and trying the adage “When cottonwoods bud, plant the spuds.”

This book is not a story that you can read through like a novel. It is more a reference book and can be read gradually or used as a go-to source for specific help. One philosophical approach I particularly like about Mr. Wann’s gardening is that
there are lessons in failures—gardens are an experiment that we learn from every year. That is one of the things I love about gardening—there is always something new and useful to learn. And I definitely learned a lot reading The Zen of Gardening.

Reviewed by Ann Guthals

GROWING HOLLYHOCKS

Hollyhock (Alcea rosea) – Zones 3 to 9. These old- fashioned favorites unfurl richly colored single or double flowers on lanky stems that can reach 9 feet in height. They can tower above a garden, adding a lovely vertical element to your yard.

Hollyhock is a biennial, which means it grows foliage on short stems its first year but doesn’t flower until the following year. Growing hollyhocks in the garden is the goal of many gardeners who remember these impressive flowers from their youth. It is a favorite ‘cottage garden’ choice in my yard. 

Did you know, based on folklore, that hollyhocks werehollyhock 1 planted near outhouses so ladies wouldn’t have to broach the unmentionable subject of outhouses in a Victorian household? They could simply look for the hollyhocks themselves.

Hollyhocks need full sun and moist, rich, well-drained soil. The mistake many novice hollyhock growers make is to plant this flower in soil that is too dry. If you are planting seeds, sow the seeds outside about a week before last frost. If you are planting seedlings, wait about two to three weeks after last frost. Hollyhock seeds only need to be planted right below the soil, no more than 1/4- inch deep. Hollyhock plants should be about 2 feet apart to grow well. You can also plant bare root hollyhocks. 

Hollyhocks are a short lived perennial. This means that most varieties will only live two to three years. Their lifespan can be extended some by removing growing hollyhock flowers as soon as they fade. By living in a non-tropical region, cutting them
back to the ground and mulching them will also help.

The one benefit that comes from growing hollyhock flowers is that they easily reseed themselves. While they may be short-lived, in their proper growing conditions they will continually grow more, which will keep the hollyhock flowers consistent in years to come.

Few diseases affect hollyhocks; however, hollyhock rust is a problem. Rust is a common and serious disease that is found in hollyhock gardens and is spread by mallow, which is a weed that acts as a disease reservoir. The rust disease is a fungus that spreads by rain droplets splashing on leaves and through air transfer. If not treated, the disease intensifies through summer and will eventually kill the plant. Rust will overwinter and infect the crowns of sprouting plants in spring.

The rust disease in hollyhocks appears as rust-colored bumps on the underside of the leaves and stems of the plant. The disease starts as small rust flecks and grows into raised bumps or pustules that will spread to all parts of the plant greens. An infected plant will appear limp and ragged. Does hollyhock rust spread to other plants? Yes, it does! It only spreads to other members of the Alcea family, so most of your other garden plants are safe.

There are a few pests that affect hollyhocks: hollyhock pest 1The Hollyhock weevil (Apion longirostre) is one of them. The hollyhock weevil is commonly responsible for damaged foliage and thinned-out stands of hollyhock. Another is the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) hollyhock pest 2which feed on hollyhock leaves as adults, causing the foliage to turn brown from the top of the plant down. The Hollyhock Sawfly larvae (Neoptilia malvacearum) feed extensively on leaves, eventually skeletonizing hollyhock foliage. Spider mites such as the Two-Spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) feed on hollyhocks. Spider mite feeding damage appears as stippling or flecking on leaves, leaf yellowing and premature leaf drop. Mites are small, barely visible to the naked eye, and they prefer hot, dry conditions; the presence of fine webbing indicates a severe infestation.

Some additional possible pests: multiple species of thrips including gladiolius thrips can affect hollyhocks. These small, flying insects pierce flowers, buds, leaves and stems, causing the appearance of silvery, necrotic lines and sometimes dieback. Avoid the use of broad-spectrum insecticides that could harm natural thrips predators. Leafhoppers and aphids may also occasionally act as hollyhock pests. Aphids are soft-bodied insects that tend to feed on vulnerable new growth. There are plenty of resources available to learn more about the various pests that can affect hollyhocks. I would encourage you to further your research if you find you are having issues with your hollyhocks!

If anyone would like some seeds I have some single-flower black, white, red and Crème de Cassis seeds I’d love to share with fellow gardeners. I am looking for single-flower variety in a bright yellow, if anyone has them growing in their yards! I can leave some at Amy’s office if there is an interest.

Resources and further reading: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hollyhock/tips-on-hollyhocksgrowing-hollyhocks-successfully.htm
http://thevermontgardener.blogspot.com/?spref=fb
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hollyhock/tips-on-hollyhocks-growing-hollyhocks-successfully.htm
http://birdsandblooms.com/gardening/top-10-lists-for-gardeners/top-10-old-fashioned-flowers/?8
http://www.gardenguides.com/68352-hollyhock-diseases.html
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hollyhock/controlling-hollyhockweevils.htm
htt
p://homeguides.sfgate.com/hollyhock-pests-22391.html

Submitted by Tracy Livingston

Book Review – Permaculture…

Permaculture book summer 2016

Permaculture for the Rest of Us—Abundant Living on Less Than an Acre

By Jenni Blackmore

 

I loved reading this book!  It is so down-to-earth (appropriate for a gardening book!), practical and funny.  It leads you on and on from one garden topic to another with so much helpful information in every paragraph that you don’t want it to end.  It’s the first garden book I’ve read that reads as easy as a good novel.

This book is written by a woman who moved to a windswept island off of Nova Scotia 25 years ago to make a sustainable farm on poor clay soils facing challenging weather.  Sounds like Montana!  She learned by doing and along the way became educated in permaculture principals.  Permaculture was developed in tropical places but lucky for us Jenni Blackmore is here to apply these principals to places like Montana.

While providing much useful information, the book does not go into depth on any given topic.  As such it is very accessible and helpful to a beginning gardener.  But the information also validates and reinforces a more experienced gardener’s knowledge and provides many suggestions that even master gardeners may not have tried yet.  Two I am trying this year are: snipping the plants I thin rather than pulling them so as not to disturb the roots of the young plants I want to keep; and rather than trying to plant small lettuce and greens seeds in wet spring soil, broadcast the seeds on the soil, then cover with a thin layer of potting soil (or topsoil).

Jenni looks at her farm as a system, interlocking and logical.  She encourages looking at the whole system—the physical components, the interdependent functioning, and the development in time.  Her farm is less than an acre but she is able to provide much of the food for her family.  She has learned by doing and her knowledge may help the rest of us prevent some errors without having to learn the hard way.

To give you an enticing sample of Jenni’s writing, here is her description of the purpose of the book from her introduction: “My purpose here is to write an encouragement manual, an if we can do it then for certain you can kind of book, a book that might save others from getting bogged down by the same mistakes we made and which simplifies and elevates permaculture methodology to its rightful status….While not wanting it to read like a text book, I do want to supply enough concrete information to facilitate success…Whether it’s a speed read during the first heady days of spring planting or leisurely dreaming on a cold winter’s afternoon, read on.  And enjoy!”

This very enjoyable book is available by order from Barnes and Noble.

Book review submitted by Ann Guthals